I was sent this by a student who wishes to remain anonymous.

Holy anointing oil
Historical Reevaluation of the Bible
Abstract:
Jesus anointed people with the therapeutic and entheogenic holy oil from the Old Testament. The holy oil was used during baptism, and it caused the recipient to hallucinate. The drug-induced visions and voices that were heard were then interpreted to be messages from God and glimpses into the Kingdom of Heaven. Furthermore, Jesus was seen as a moral savior when he healed people with the holy oil. This is because the assumption of the time period was that illness was caused by sin. So, when Jesus healed people with the holy oil, people believed that he had the ability and authority to forgive their sins. All of Jesus' medical miracles can be explained by the medical properties of the ingredients of the holy oil. Finally, by contrasting the Biblical interpretation of resurrection as physical with the Gnostic interpretation of resurrection as spiritual, the myth of a physical resurrection can be explained away as exaggeration caused by the decades long game of telephone that occurred before the oral scriptures were put to writing.

Setup of the Evidence:
There are twelve numbered points, all of which are supported by the lettered evidence directly below it. The lettered evidence is from the Bible, Gnostic texts, early Christian Church Orders, early Christian writings, and primary medical sources. If any of the numbered points is too self-evident for you, you can skip the evidence in that category and move on to the next point, but be aware that each point builds on the previous point. Note, all bold emphases are added to draw attention to important parts of the quotation and are not in the original.

1. New Testament oil cures epilepsy
  1. "They drove out many demons and anointed many sick people with oil and healed them."- Mark 6:13 [The link provides source that says epilepsy was believed to be cause by demons in ancient times. http://library.thinkquest.org/J001619/history.html. Thus, this shows that oil was used to cure epilepsy.]

2. The oil refers to the holy oil of the Old Testament, same oil the Jews had banned. Just because it was banned doesn't mean that it stopped existing and was suddenly impossible to find. On the contrary, most things that are officially banned, are still available in a black market, for example, most drugs today. It is because Jesus was literally anointed with this oil that we call him the 'The Anointed' (Christ) and not because of some figurative anointing by God.
  1. "For we stand in need of a woman, a deaconess, for many necessities; and first in the baptism of women, the deacon shall anoint only their forehead with the holy oil, and after him the deaconess shall anoint them: for there is no necessity that the women should be seen by the men; but only in the laying on of hands the bishop shall anoint her head, as the priests and kings were formerly anointed, not because those which are now baptized are ordained priests, but as being Christians, or anointed, from Christ the Anointed, "a royal priesthood, and an holy nation, the Church of God, the pillar and ground of the marriage-chamber," who formerly were not a people, but now are beloved and chosen, upon whom is called His new name." - Book 3 Section 2 of Apostolic Constitutions. The first six books are excerpts of the Didascalia Apostolorum, Church Order, written in Syria about AD 250. http://www.piney.com/DocAposConstitu.html [Shows that the holy oil was used in baptism, it was the same oil from the OT, and that it is because of the oil anointing and not a figurative anointing by God that they are called Christians. Also since it shows that it was with this oil that people were anointed, it confirms that the since the sick are anointed with oil, they are using this holy oil.]
  2. " The Jews had before been directed to compose a sacred oil, with which those who were called to the priesthood or to the kingdom might be anointed. And as now the robe of purple is a sign of the assumption of royal dignity among the Romans, so with them the anointing with the holy oil conferred the title and power of king. But since the ancient Greeks used the word xri/esqai to express the art of anointing, which they now express by a0lei/fesqai, as the verse of Homer shows, "But the attendants washed, and anointed them with oil;" on this account we call Him Christ, that is, the Anointed, who in Hebrew is called the Messias." – Book 4 "Of True Wisdom and Religion" Chapter 7 of The Divine Institutes by Lactantius. (?) http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-07/TOC.htm#TopOfPage (Bold emphasis added. Lactantius was a 4th century Christian apologist) [Shows that he was called the Christ because of the oil and not in a figurative sense. Implies that the oil is the same as OT oil. This further supports how integral it is to the faith.]

3. So the oil that cures epilepsy is also anointed on Jesus, thus giving him the name Christ=The Anointed. What is in this oil that is curing epilepsy? To Answer that, ask: What are the ingredients and their medical effects? The ingredients of the oil are myrrh, cinnamon, fragrant cane, cassia, and olive oil. None of these treat epileptic seizures. The 3
rd ingredient is most commonly translated as fragrant cane, but it is vague. It has in some versions been translated as calamus. However, calamus also doesn't help epilepsy. So, what is curing the epilepsy? 4 of the 5 ingredients have no effect on epilepsy for sure. That means further investigation needs to be done on 'fragrant cane.'

  1. "Then the LORD said to Moses, Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels (about 12.5 pounds or 6kg) of liquid myrrh, half as much (that is, 250 shekels) of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels (about 3kg) of fragrant cane, 500 shekels of cassia--all according to the sanctuary shekel--and a hin (about 4quarts or 4liters) of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer. It will be the sacred anointing oil."- Exodus 30: 22-25
  2. Although myrrh, cinnamon, cassia, olive oil and calamus (if that's what fragrant cane refers to) don't treat epileptic seizures, they still have many therapeutic properties. Much more than most people might think. Some of the treatments are very interesting because they relate to some of the medical miracles that doctor Jesus has been credited for. These include: antiseptic to heal wounds (myrrh, cinnamon, cassia, olive); menstrual disturbances or uterine hemorrhage (myrrh, cinnamon, cassia); rheumatism (myrrh, olive oil); fevers (cinnamon, olive); pruritus (olive oil); dropsy/edema (olive oil). www.botanical.com for reference.

4. So what else might 'fragrant cane' be? The original Hebrew from which it is translated is 'kaneh-bosm.' This sounds a lot like cannabis, especially when one considers that a final pronounced 'm' in Hebrew is often used to make a noun plural. This by itself is certainly not proof, but since it is a realistic possibility that 'kaneh-bosm' means 'cannabis,' the medical effects of cannabis should be considered. Turns out, cannabis does in fact treat epileptic seizures. Medical evidence supports 'cannabis' as the correct translation of 'kaneh-bosm,' since the anti-epileptic properties of the holy oil can't be explained by any of the other ingredients or any alternative translations of 'kaneh-bosm.' Etymological evidence will be next.

  1. Feeney D.  Marihuana use among epileptics.  JAMA. 1976;235:1105. [Citation from American Journal of Public Health, 3/96, No. 3, p.441-2]
  2. Karler R, Turkanis SA.  The cannabinoids as potential antiepileptics.  J Clin Pharmacol.  1981;21:437S-448S. [Citation from same as above]
  3. J. P. Davis and H. H. Ramsey, "Antiepileptic Action of Marijuana-active Substances," Federation Proceedings 8 (1949): 284-5. (2 out of 5 severe generalized epilepsy patients responded very positively to marijuana, 3 out of 5 had little effect, positive or negative) [Citation from Grinspoon, Lester M.D., and Bakalar, James B., Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine, Yale University Press New Haven and London, 1997, p.66-80 and p. 5-6]
  4. Three anecdotal case studies reveal that for some epilepsy patients, marijuana by itself is very effective in preventing seizures. [Citation from same as above]
  5. J. R. Reynolds, "Therapeutic Uses and Toxic Effects of Cannabis indica," Lancet 1 (1890): 637. (Cannabis is found to be valuable in treating certain forms of epilepsy) [Citation from same as above]
  6. US Dispensatory of 1854 recommends cannabis as a treatment for 'convulsions' among other medical conditions. [Citation from http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/9.htm]
5. Okay, so medical evidence supports the cannabis translation. But, what are the etymological arguments? Many ancient languages had 'kan' as a root word that had a double meaning: hemp or reed. In Hebrew, it is 'kaneh.' References to 'kaneh shirt' in Hebrew texts supports the hemp translation since shirts used to be made from hemp (cannabis). While the basic etymological argument (minus my medical argument) was made decades ago by etymologist Sula Benet, hardly anyone has attempted to counter it. I was able to find only one counterargument and that was from Ernest Abel, author of 'Marijuana- The First Twelve Thousand Years.' His two objections rest on the assumptions that marijuana would not be called a 'spice' as required by Exodus 30:23 and that marijuana would not be described as 'sweet-tasting' as potentially (depends on which translation is correct) required by Isaiah 43:24. Both these assumptions are incorrect since depending on the type of marijuana, it can be spicy and sweet.
  1. "It [Cannabis] is 'cana' in Sanskrit, 'qunnabu' in Assyrian, 'kenab' in
  2. Persian, 'kannab' in Arabic and 'kanbun' un /chaldean…. In many ancient languages, including Hebrew, the root 'kan' has a double meaning --- both hemp and reed. In many translations of the Bible's original Hebrew, we find 'kaneh bosm' variously and erroneously translated as "calamus" and "aromatic reed," a vague term. Calamus, (Calamus aromaticus) is a fragrant marsh plant. The error occurred in the oldest Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, in the third century B.C., where the terms 'kaneh, kaneh bosm' were incorrectly translated as "calamus." And in the many translations that followed, including Martin Luther's, the same error was repeated." (etymologist says it's cannabis and explains when it was mistranslated the way it was) [Citation from http://home.gci.net/~sncwarmgun/sm410.html contains EARLY DIFFUSION AND FOLK USES OF HEMP from Author: Benet (last name), Sula (first name), "Cannabis and Culture," Rubin, Vera & Comitas, Lambros, (eds.) 1975 39-49.]
  3. "In the course of time, the two words 'kaneh' and 'bosm' were fused
  4. one, 'kanabos' or 'kannabus,'known to us from Mishna, the body of
  5. traditional Hebrew law." (Evolution of the word cannabis) [Citation from same as above]
  6. "A piece of evidence regarding the use of the word 'kaneh' in
  7. sense of hemp rather than reed among the Hebrews is the religious
  8. requirement that the dead be buried in 'kaneh' shirts. Centuries later,
  9. was substituted for hemp" [Quotation is from same source as above, but she gets her source regarding 'kaneh shirt' from: (Klein 1908) KLEIN, SIEGFRIED 1908 Tod und Begrabnis in Palistina. Berlin: H. Itzkowski.] (If I knew German and could figure out from which Hebrew text was "'kaneh' shirt" found, that would be strong primary evidence. As it stands, it's secondary evidence)
  10. "Greek historian Herodotus, in the fifth century B.C., observed that the Scythians used the plant to purge themselves after funerals by throwing hemp seeds on heated stones to create a thick vapor, inhaling the smoke and becoming intoxicated. 'The Scythians howl with joy for the vapour bath'" [Citation from same source as above (Sula Bent) who is getting source from : Herodotus, IV: 142).] This evidence shows that hemp was burned and inhaled by contemporaries of the Hebrews for inhaling smoke in ritual fashion. Similar to how the Hebrews burned the holy oil as incense. Notice how hemp was used after a funeral as part of the mourning process. There is an interesting connection to Christianity that is pointed out in point#12B.
  11. Objection By Ernest Abel: "However the word "kaneh" is a very vague term [62] that has disconcerted more than a few biblical scholars. A reference to kaneh in Isaiah 43:24 refers not to a "sweet-smelling" but a "sweet-tasting" plant. Few people would ever say that marijuana leaves taste sweet. Because of this reference to a sweet-tasting plant, some biblical scholars and botanists believe that kaneh is probably sugarcane... The reference to kaneh as a spice in Exodus 30:23 also suggests sugar rather than cannabis.[63]" – [Citation is from Abel, Ernest L, Marijuana- The First Twelve Thousand Years, 1980. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/1.htm]
  12. CounterArgument To The Objection: First of all, sugarcane does not cure epilepsy, but cannabis does. But to address the issue of cannabis being sweet tasting and/or spicy, it can be. Depending on the variety of cannabis, it can be sweet tasting and/or spicy tasting and/or sweet smelling and/or spicy smelling. See http://www.easyseeds.com/banks/flying_dutchman.htm and http://www.emeryseeds.com/special-quick.html. Also supporting this is, "Hashish Tips" in http://www.420tours.com/art_judge.html, which is adapted from Hashish by Robert Connell Clarke (Red Eye Press, 1996).

  13. "When pure cannabis resin burns it produces a pungent, spicy aroma, like fine-quality incense." See "Hashish Tips" in http://www.420tours.com/art_judge.html, which is adapted from Hashish by Robert Connell Clarke (Red Eye Press, 1996). (Since pure cannabis burning smells like fine-quality incense, there is further support for kaneh-bosm as being cannabis since later in the Exodus 30 passage, it is described how the holy anointing oil is burned for incense.)

6. The medical evidence and the etymological evidence support the cannabis translation. It would not be abnormal for cannabis to have played a significant role in Christianity if we keep in mind the role it has played in many other religions.

  1. Marijuana had a positive religious function as a means for communicating with the divine in early Hinduism, Buddhism, Tantrism, Taoism, and Zoroastrianism. [Evidence from Abel, Ernest L, Marijuana- The First Twelve Thousand Years, 1980. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/1.htm]

7. So the oil had cannabis in it. That means it also had a hallucinogenic effect. When and how did they use this oil? They used it in baptism and general medicine. First look at the baptismal use and its significance in Point#7 and 8. Then look at the medical use in Point#9. In Point#7, prove that originally, baptism was not just water baptism as it is today, but in fact, baptism by the holy oil was a crucial component of baptism. While the holy oil was restricted to ordained priests in the Old Testament, early Christians violated the Jewish ban and poured holy oil on top of each other as part of baptism.

  1. "CONCERNING THE SACRED INITIATION OF HOLY BAPTISM XVI. Thou therefore, O bishop, according to that type, shalt anoint the head of those that are to be baptized, whether they be men or women, with the holy oil, for a type of the spiritual baptism. After that, either thou, O bishop, or a presbyter that is under thee, shall in the solemn form name over them the Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit, and shall dip them in the water; and let a deacon receive the man, and a deaconess the woman, that so the conferring of this inviolable seal may take place with a becoming decency. And after that, let the bishop anoint those that are baptized with ointment" – Book 3:16 of Apostolic Constitutions The first six books are from the Didascalia Apostolorum, Church Order, written in Syria about AD 250. http://www.piney.com/DocAposConstitu.html [Shows that the holy oil is used in baptism, as is water and an ointment.]
  2. "Through the Holy Spirit we are indeed begotten again, but we are begotten through Christ in the two. We are anointed through the Spirit. When we were begotten, we were united. None can see himself either in water or in a mirror without light. Nor again can you see in light without mirror or water. For this reason, it is fitting to baptize in the two, in the light and the water. Now the light is the chrism."- Gospel of Philip http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/gop.html [Shows that baptism required holy oil (chrism) and water according to Gnostic scriptures.]
  3. In North Africa in 200AD, during baptism, the person is dipped in water and after coming up is anointed with oil, according to Tertullian. In Rome, the anointing was also given after water. In Syria, the church order Didascalia Apostolorum, Church Order states that anointing comes before being dipped in water. Hippolytus says that the anointing happens three times. There were lots of variation regarding the order, but holy oil was an integral part of baptism in a number of churches in the 3rd Century. – This is paraphrased from p. 260 of The Early Church, by Henry Chadwick (author is a Regius Professor at Oxford and Cambridge, Head of Christ Church, Oxford, knighted by British Government.)
8. So baptism involved hallucinogenic cannabis being poured upon your head. This implies that the divine visions of Jesus after his baptism are drug-induced hallucinations. Is it possible then that Jesus and the early Christians really saw visions and heard voices, but these visions and voices came not from God but from the hallucinogenic effects of a drug? Absolutely, if you've agreed with the arguments so far. If that is the case, then there should be examples of hallucinations. There Are. There should be examples of a belief in the divinity and purity of the oil. There Are. Maybe the early Christians should even have named themselves after this oil that they worshipped. They Did. 'Christians' means 'The Anointed Ones,' and while the popular myth suggests that this refers to a figurative anointing by God, the evidence shows clearly that the early Christians were talking about a literal anointing by oil.
  1. "Glory be to thee, hidden one, that art communicated in baptism. Glory to thee the unseen power that is in baptism. Glory to thee, renewal, whereby are renewed they that are baptized and with affection take hold upon thee. And having thus said, he poured oil over their heads and said: Glory be to thee the love of compassion (bowels). Glory to thee name of Christ. Glory to thee, power established in Christ. And he commanded a vessel to be brought, and baptized them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost."- Acts of Thomas: 132 http://wesley.nnu.edu/noncanon/acts/actthom.htm (Shows that oil is used in baptism and an unseen power is identified in baptism. Since we know the oil had hallucinogenic properties, the unseen power is probably referring to the hallucinogenic effect.)
  2. "Thou holy oil given unto us for sanctification, secret mystery whereby the cross was shown unto us, thou art the straightener of the crooked limbs, thou art the humbler (softener) of hard things (works), thou art it that showeth the hidden treasures, thou art the sprout of goodness; let thy power come, let it be established upon thy servant Mygdonia, and heal thou her by this freedom." -Acts of Thomas:121 http://wesley.nnu.edu/noncanon/acts/actthom.htm [Shows that the oil is medicine that heals crippled joints (more on this in Point#9), and that oil shows hidden treasures and it is the hallucinogenic oil that has shown the cross, probably in a vision.]
  3. "At that time Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. As Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: "You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased. At once the Spirit sent him out into the desert, and he was in the desert forty days, being tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals, and angels attended him."- Mark 1: 9-13. (Right after having hallucinogenic oil poured on him he sees visions of Satan, animals, and angels and the voice of God. He seems to even be suffering from time distortion (common effect of marijuana) as forty days suddenly go by.)
  4. "And he commanded them to bring oil, that they might receive the seal by the oil. They brought the oil therefore, and lighted many lamps; for it was night (Syr. whom I preach: and the king gave orders that the bath should be closed for seven days, and that no man should bathe in it: and when the seven days were done, on the eighth day they three entered into the bath by night that Judas might baptize them. And many lamps were lighted in the bath). And the apostle arose and sealed them. And the Lord was revealed unto them by a voice, saying: Peace be unto you brethren. And they heard his voice only, but his likeness they saw not, for they had not yet received the added sealing of the seal (Syr. had not been baptized). And the apostle took the oil and poured it upon their heads and anointed and chrismed them, and began to say (Syr. And Judas went up and stood upon the edge of the cistern and poured oil upon their heads and said): Come, thou holy name of the Christ that is above every name. Come, thou power of the Most High, and the compassion that is perfect. Come, gift (chrism) of the Most High. Come, compassionate mother. Come, communion of the male. Come, she that revealeth the hidden mysteries. Come, mother of the seven houses, that thy rest may be in the eighth house. Come, elder of the five members, mind, thought, reflection, consideration, reason; communicate with these young men. Come, holy spirit, and cleanse their reins and their heart, and give them the added seal, in the name of the Father and Son and Holy Ghost. And when they were sealed, there appeared unto them a youth holding a lighted torch, so that their lamps became dim at the approach of the light thereof. And he went forth and was no more seen of them. – Acts of Thomas: 27 http://wesley.nnu.edu/noncanon/acts/actthom.htm (Shows that baptism happened with oil and it was to show them the hidden mysteries, the divine truths. Since the oil was hallucinogenic, these hidden mysteries were seemingly revealed as a result of the "high" or the "trip" which is why they were hidden from the non-baptized.)
  5. "The chrism is superior to baptism, for it is from the word "Chrism" that we have been called "Christians," certainly not because of the word "baptism". And it is because of the chrism that "the Christ" has his name. For the Father anointed the Son, and the Son anointed the apostles, and the apostles anointed us. He who has been anointed possesses everything. He possesses the resurrection, the light, the cross, the Holy Spirit. The Father gave him this in the bridal chamber; he merely accepted (the gift). The Father was in the Son and the Son in the Father. This is the Kingdom of Heaven."- Gospel of Philip http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/gop.html (Shows that it is because of the oil that they are called Christians, and that "Christ" has his name because of the holy oil (chrism). Jesus was not the figurative anointed one of God, but rather literally anointed. As a result, this passage shows the belief in the divinity of the holy oil. Shows that the oil was the Kingdom of Heaven)
  6. "Seeing that our souls are at leisure and eager toward God, give thou us the seal; for we have heard thee say that the God whom thou preachest knoweth his own sheep by his seal. And the apostle said unto them: I also rejoice and entreat you to receive this seal, and to partake with me in this eucharist and blessing of the Lord, and to be made perfect therein. For this is the Lord and God of all, even Jesus Christ whom I preach, and he is the father of truth, in whom I have taught you to believe. And he commanded them to bring oil, that they might receive the seal by the oil." – Acts of Thomas: 26 http://wesley.nnu.edu/noncanon/acts/actthom.htm (This shows that the seal is the defining mark of the Christians and that the seal is received by the oil, and so the oil is the defining mark of the Christians. This shows the importance of the oil.)
9. Okay, so the divine visions were hallucinations. What about all those medical miracles in the New Testament? Well, the oil was used as a general medicine as well.
  1. "Is any one of you sick? He should call the elders of the church to pray over him and anoint him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer offered in faith will make the sick person well;"- James 5:14-5 [Shows that oil was used to heal sick people.]
  2. "Spiritual love is wine and fragrance. All those who anoint themselves with it take pleasure in it. While those who are anointed are present, those nearby also profit (from the fragrance). If those anointed with ointment withdraw from them and leave, then those not anointed, who merely stand nearby, still remain in their bad odor. The Samaritan gave nothing but wine and oil to the wounded man. It is nothing other than the ointment. It healed the wounds, for "love covers a multitude of sins""- Gospel of Philip http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/gop.html [This one has a lot in it. First, fragrance refers to the oil. You know this from reading exodus 30 passage where they describe how the holy oil is used as a fragrance. More direct evidence comes from this passage itself. For example, line 4 says that without the oil you will have a bad odor, implying the oil is the fragrance. Now to prove the relevant points, the last line is the most interesting: "It (the ointment/oil-see preceding sentence) healed the wounds (proves central point #9), for love (same as wine and fragrance (oil)- see first sentence) covered a multitude of sins (now you're thinking: 'wait, I thought we were talking about covering wounds, not covering sins.' But, for the people of this time, it was one in the same.) Notice, this line actually reveals an important assumption of the time, namely that medical sickness was a result of immorality. Thus, healing a person (like Dr. Jesus' healings) was equivalent to covering up their sins (more evidence on this equivalence between sin and illness in point#11)." The second sentence also shows that using oil is pleasurable, which is in accordance with the pleasurable euphoric effects of cannabis (see point#12 for further elaboration on the non-medical similarities between the oil and cannabis).] The main point to get for now since we are on point#9 is that the oil heals.
  3. See Evidence #8B.

10. A lot of Jesus' miracles were medical in nature. Keeping in mind that all the written scriptures were first passed down orally for a few decades, one would expect that by the time the stories were written down, the story would have diverged to some degree from the original event. For example, except for Mark 6:13 and some Gnostic scriptures and some Biblical passages, most of the primary Biblical documents show Jesus healing people without making any reference to the holy oil, thus making it seem all the more magical. However, given the evidence in Point #9, where there was healing, there was probably oil. And, as the story of this event was passed down, the importance of the oil in the healing miracles was diminished and eventually forgotten. What seems like a divine miracle is really based off a true scientifically explainable event. As a result, what follows is a list (I think it's complete) of all the miracles in the New Testament and the corresponding non-miraculous explanations. 10 of the miracles are explainable and 3 remain unexplained for now.
    1. Demon Possessed. Citation- Mark 6:13. Diagnosis: Epilepsy. See point#4. Explanation: Cannabis in the holy oil heals the epileptic seizures that are seen as demonic. Evidence: See point#4
    2. Deaf and Speech Impediment. Cited from Mark 7:31-37. Diagnosis: Acute Otitis Media (severe ear infection). The effects of (AOM) are temporary hearing loss and if untreated, permanent hearing impairment. Children who have early hearing impairment from frequent ear infections are likely to have speech and language disabilities. This is because persistent fluid in the middle ear and chronic otitis media can reduce a child's hearing at a time that is critical for speech and language development. Although today otitis media is primarily a disease of infants and young children, it can also affect adults. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/pubs_hb/otitism.htm Explanation: Cannabis in the holy oil heals acute otitis media. Evidence: 1. HEMP -- ITS HISTORY -- TRADITIONAL AND POPULAR APPLICATION, KONOPI JAKO LEK (Hemp) [in Czech {Slovak} except for summaries] Acta Universitatis Palackianaw Olomucensis--Tom. VI 1955 Prof. Dr. Jan Kabelik EFFECTIVENESS OF CANNABIS INDICA ON CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA [Summary (p. 89) "Local application of cannabis indica was experienced in 18 patients suffering from chronic otitis media, and in 4 patients after mastoidectomy. A significant improvement was noticed in 13 cases of chronic otitis…] citation from http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/konopi.htm. 2. "According to Dioscorides (100 A.D.), the resin of fresh hemp is an excellent treatment for earaches." -from EARLY DIFFUSION AND FOLK USES OF HEMP from Benet, Sula, "Cannabis and Culture," Rubin, Vera & Comitas, Lambros, (eds.) 1975 39-49 http://home.gci.net/~sncwarmgun/sm410.html
    3. Virulent Skin Disease: Cited from Matt 8:1-4. Diagnosis: Pruritus. This has sometimes been mistranslated as modern day leprosy, but most Bibles have corrected the mistake. Just a side note, even if it were leprosy, there would be an explanation for it since myrrh, which is in the holy oil, treats leprosy see www.botanical.com. But, I won't go into that because the condition is pruritus, not leprosy, but this aside does go to show just how therapeutically loaded the holy oil mixture was. Explanation: Olive oil and Cannabis in the holy oil healed the pruritus. Evidence: 1. Regarding olive oil see http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/olive-06.html#med 2. Regarding cannabis there is anecdotal evidence of a man with pruritus who gained relief from cannabis. See Grinspoon, Lester M.D., and Bakalar, James B., Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine, Yale University Press New Haven and London, 1997, p. 131-5; 3. Also for cannabis and pruritus see, C. E. Turner and M. A. L. Elsohly, "Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, Its Homologs and Isomers," Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21 (8-0 Suppl.) (August-September 1981): 283S-291S. [A nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabichromene, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in animal experiments. This is important because pruritus is an inflammatory skin disorder. This is suggestive evidence for pruritus, but it gains more relevance in combination with the anecdotal evidence]
    4. Paralytic or Crippled. Cited from Matt 9:1-8. Diagnosis: It could be severe rheumatism or sciatic neuralgia. Rheumatism causes severe joint pains and in extreme cases it can lead to inability to walk if the joints are that swollen. Sciatic neuralgia affects the sciatic nerve which runs down the leg and it causes sharp pains to the point where walking is no longer possible. Explanation: If the condition is rheumatism, then myrrh, olive oil, and cannabis in the holy oil are all effective. If the condition is sciatic neuralgia, then cannabis in the holy oil is an effective treatment. Evidence: 1. Regarding effect on rheumatism. For olive oil see http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/olive-06.html#med, for myrrh see http://www.nonymous.freeserve.co.uk/aboutxmas/frankin1.html and for cannabis see first http://www.aids.org/immunet/atn.nsf/page/a-287-01, and then Grinspoon, Lester M.D., and Bakalar, James B., Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine, Yale University Press New Haven and London, 1997, p. 126-131, and finally http://home.gci.net/~sncwarmgun/sm410.html. 2. Regarding cannabis' effect on neuralgia see Grinspoon, Lester M.D., and Bakalar, James B., Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine, Yale University Press New Haven and London, 1997, p. 5-6. 3. Also for cannabis' and neuralgia see the 1854 US Dispensatory recommendation of cannabis for neuralgia which can be found in http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/9.htm
    5. Fever. Cited from Matt 8:14-15. Diagnosis: Fever. Explanation: Olive oil in the holy oil relieved the fevers. Evidence: See http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/olive-06.html#med.
    6. Hemorrhage. Cited from Matt 9:18-26. Diagnosis: Uterine hemorrhage is a likely possibility since it happens to a woman. Explanation: Cinnamon, cassia, and cannabis in the holy oil all are effective on uterine hemorrhage. Evidence: 1. For the cinnamon, see http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cinnam69.html#med ; for the cassia see http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cassia31.html#med. 2. For cannabis, see http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_medical_info3.shtml and the US Dispensatory of 1854 at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/9.htm
    7. Blind. Cited from Matt 9:27-31. Diagnosis: Glaucoma. Explanation: I am not aware of any illnesses that cause reversible blindness. It is much more likely that the blind man was not completely blind, but was going blind and he could see that he was going blind as his peripheral vision narrowed and lights turned to halos and the world in general was dimmer. These are of course the symptoms of advanced glaucoma (early stages of glaucoma have no noticeable symptoms). Cannabis in the holy oil treats glaucoma. As a result of the treatment, the man would have seen the halos disappear, and the world would not seem as dim. Furthermore, if the cannabis in the holy oil is applied regularly, it can prevent the glaucoma from progressing and will save the person's vision from an impending blindness. While this is not the exact story the Bible tells, it is close and could have been the original event. Decades of passing the story down orally would have naturally changed to be even more dramatic than they were in reality. Evidence: 1. American Journal of Public Health, 3/96, No. 3, p. 441-2. 2. Grinspoon, Lester M.D., and Bakalar, James B., Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine, Yale University Press New Haven and London, 1997, p.45-66
    8. Dropsy/Edema. Luke 14:1-6. Diagnosis: Dropsy/edema. Explanation: Olive oil in the holy oil treated the dropsy/edema. Evidence: See http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/olive-06.html#med.
    9. Withered hand. Matt 12:9-14. Diagnosis: Not sure. Explanation: Dry withered hands. I haven't a clue what the diagnosis should be but based on the symptoms, a skin lubricant like olive oil in the holy oil sounds like it could be effective for a person suffering from excessively dry hands. Evidence: http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/olive-06.html#med.
    10. Resurrection. Matt 27, 28. Explanation: Gnostic texts talk about resurrection as being something you do before you die, thus implying a figurative meaning to what has traditionally been seen as a literal full body resurrection. Since the Bible and Gnostic texts contradict each other, one must be wrong. It is feasible that the Gnostics were right and the Bible exaggerated it, since the Bible is more extreme on this. But if the Bible was right, then how did the Gnostics write what they did? They would have had to downplay a miracle, which seems much less likely. The way the game of telephone usually works is that as the story is passed orally, it becomes more and more miraculous and exaggerated, not the other way around. Evidence for the Gnostic description of a non-physical resurrection follows. Evidence: "Those who say they will die first and then rise are in error. If they do not first receive the resurrection while they live, when they die they will receive nothing." Gospel of Philip http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/gop.html
    11. Calming of the Storm. Matt 8:23-27. Unexplained for now.
    12. Miracle of Loaves. Matt 14:13-21. Unexplained for now.
    13. Walks on Water. Matt 14: 22-33. Unexplained for now. Hallucination? If so, it would have to be a collective hallucination which is not easy to accept, but may be possible.

11. So the medical miracles were really just medical healing by the holy oil. But, why are they described like miracles. The answer becomes clear only once we recognize the divergences between our assumptions about illness and theirs. We see illness as coming from biological, chemical causes. The early Christians did not have advanced science and so they understood illnesses in a different way. Since the cause of the illnesses was not easy to pinpoint at the time, the natural assumption was that the illness must be caused by the Gods or by some Demons. The illness must be afflicting you because of your sins. So, it was believed that if you cured an illness you had battled a demon and covered up the person's sins. This is why in so many ancient cultures the medicine man takes on a religious role. There is evidence that Christians were no different than other ancient peoples in their belief in the equivalence of sin and sickness. Given this context, it seems likely that the concept of Jesus as a Savior probably originated from the fact that he distributed the therapeutic holy oil and covered everyone's sins/wounds.
    1. See evidence #9B
    2. "Jesus said to the paralytic, "Take comfort, my child, your sins are forgiven."… But to prove to you that the Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins- then he said to the paralytic- get up, pick up your bed and go off home. And the man got up and went home." - Matt 9:1-8. (Healing a paralyzed man is used as proof to show that Jesus can forgive sins. This reveals the belief in the equivalence of sin and sickness)
    3. "When Jesus was at dinner in his house, a number of tax collectors and sinner were also sitting at table with Jesus and his disciples; for there were many of them among his followers. When the scribes of the Pharisee party saw him eating with sinners and tax collectors, they said to his disciples, 'Why does he eat with tax collectors and sinners?" When Jesus heard this he said to them, ' It is not the healthy who need the doctor, but the sick. I came to call not the upright, but the sinners."- from Mark 2:15-17. (People want to assume that the line about the sick needing the doctor is merely figurative speech and not literally referring to the situation at hand. However, given the other evidence that has been presented thus far, the literal interpretation is more likely. Jesus is calling himself the doctor who heals the sinners/sick- same thing to them at the time.)
    4. "As a skilful and compassionate physician, heal all such as have wandered in the ways of sin; for "they that are whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick." – Book 2:20 of Apostolic Constitution. The first six books are from the Didascalia Apostolorum, Church Order, written in Syria about AD 250. (This reveals the belief that illness was caused by sin) http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-07/TOC.htm#TopOfPage or http://www.piney.com/DocAposConstitu.html
    5. "Do thou therefore, as a compassionate physician, heal all that have sinned, making use of saving methods of cure; not only cutting and searing, or using corrosives, but binding up, and putting in tents, and using gentle healing medicines, and sprinkling comfortable words." – Book 2:41 of Apostolic Constitution The first six books are excerpts of the Didascalia Apostolorum, Church Order, written in Syria about AD 250. http://www.piney.com/DocAposConstitu.html [Evidence that illness/medicine was believed to be connected to morality]

12. So now what else is there to prove? Nothing. The hardest part to swallow for most people will be the idea that there was cannabis in the holy oil. So what follows is a short list of additional circumstantial evidence. I have provided all the direct evidence I found already, but the following evidence is still interesting because it shows parallels between the properties of the oil and non-medical properties of cannabis. See, if the oil contains a drug that causes euphoria, unexplainable laughter, and physical dependence with heavy use, there should be some evidence of that in the scriptures. There is.
  1. See evidence #9B
  2. "To console those who mourn in Zion, To give them beauty for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they may be called trees of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified." – Isaiah 61:3 (Shows that the oil is a euphoriant like cannabis. Also, it is called the oil of joy for mourning. This is interesting because it parallels the Scythian use of hemp after funerals, see point#5D. Also, if you've gotten this far in the reading, then you probably accept the thesis. Let's look at the above quotation from Isaiah 61:3 under this new lens. The garment could be literally hemp clothing, instead of some figurative meaning. Trees of righteousness, is probably a literal reference to cannabis plants, and the planting of the Lord is probably the literal planting of cannabis plants, from which the hidden mysteries have been revealed, and so are thus equivalent or representative of God.)
  3. "And David says: 'My knees are weak through fasting, and my flesh faileth for want of oil.'" – Book 5:20 of Apostolic Constitutions The first six books are from the Didascalia Apostolorum, Church Order, written in Syria about AD 250. (Flesh faileth could mean losing weight or it could mean other physical problems, but what is not ambiguous is that it results from abstinence from oil. This clearly shows that the oil creates dependence and abstaining from it after regular use can cause a withdrawal. Cannabis is the only substance in the oil that can create a withdrawal effect and that withdrawal effect only occurs if you've been using it a lot for an extended period of time. Such heavy chronic use of the oil would actually be expected of the religious Christians who've named themselves after the oil since the oil was seen as a good thing, a divine thing. Because of our historical context, that may seem strange, but it is not. For a comparison, one can look at the alcoholic binge in America in the 1830s and see what people will do with a drug when they think it is all-good and the only bad thing you can do with the drug is to not use it. Remember that whiskey originally means 'the water of life' and it took on a spiritual significance for some, especially the Scottish)
  4. "My knees are weak with fasting; and my flesh is changed on account of the (lack of) oil." - Pistis Sophia: 56:24 http://www.piney.com/GnosPisSoph.html (for comments see above)
  5. "The Lord said it well: "Some have entered the Kingdom of Heaven laughing, and they have come out [...] because [...] a Christian, [...]." –Gospel of Philip http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/gop.html (Shows that the oil (entering the Kingdom of Heaven is equivalent to pouring oil on yourself, see evidence #8E for proof) makes one laugh. One of the unique properties of cannabis is that it is the only substance (as far as I know) that regularly makes people laugh for no reason, to the point where users don't even know why they're laughing.)